Tag Archives: memorial

Manassas National Battlefield Park

Overview

The first major confrontation of the Civil War occurred on July 21, 1861 at Bull Run Creek near Manassas, Virginia.  Due to its proximity to Washington, D.C., civilians drove their carriages down to picnic and watch the spectacle of 34,000 men trying to kill each other.  It was on Henry Hill that Confederate General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson earned his nickname when he refused to flee in the face of a Union advance.  In the north it was known as the Battle of Bull Run and run they did when Confederate reinforcements arrived to take the field.  The next year there was another fight here, which the southern army also won on its march north before being turned back at Antietam.

Highlights

Museum, film, “Stonewall” Jackson statue, cannons, Stone House

Must-Do Activity

As with other battlefield sites, Manassas National Battlefield Park has a National Park Service (NPS) visitor center with a movie, maps, driving tour, and hiking trails.  Start in the museum, as the fiber-optic maps with recorded narration are one of the best ways to understand the events of each battle.  The first of the two Battles of Bull Run took place around the visitor center on Henry Hill.  The second battle was spread across the landscape and is the focus of the 18-mile driving tour.

Best Trail

Cannons line the one-mile hiking trail on Henry Hill, where one of the first civilian casualties of the Civil War occurred in a house that was rebuilt in 1870 and still stands.

Instagram-worthy Photo

General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson earned his nickname at the first battle at Manassas.  We understand that Confederate statues are justifiably controversial, but this is one place that they actually belong.

Peak Season

Summer

Hours

https://www.nps.gov/mana/planyourvisit/hours.htm

Fees

None

Road Conditions

Exercise caution as the 18-mile driving tour goes through residential areas with a couple unpaved roads.

Camping

There is not an NPS campground, but nearby Bull Run Regional Park has 150 sites with RV hookups.

Related Sites

Antietam National Battlefield (Maryland)

Fredericksbug and Spotsylvania County Battlefields Memorial National Military Park (Virginia)

Cedar Creek and Belle Grove National Historical Park (Virginia)

Explore More – What state has a memorial to its troops on the spot where 123 men were killed in five minutes on August 30, 1862 (which was the greatest loss of life in any single infantry regiment in a Civil War battle)?

Perry’s Victory and International Peace Memorial

Overview

Perry’s Victory and International Peace Memorial is located on South Bass Island in western Lake Erie.  Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry not only had the best name in the War of 1812, his naval victory near here on September 10, 1813 was a turning point.  The 1817 Rush-Bagot Agreement is still in effect today, assuring that the U.S. and Canada maintain the world’s longest undefended international border.  The 352-foot tall memorial tower was built between 1912-15 and became part of the National Park Service (NPS) system in 1936.

Highlights

Museum, film, 352-foot tall memorial tower, black squirrels

Must-Do Activity

After departing from your ferry or airplane, head to the NPS visitor center for the free museum and film, then pay for your ticket to ascend the granite memorial tower in an elevator.  On a sunny day the views from the 317-foot tall viewing level across Lake Erie are splendid, including the shoreline of Canada and the roller coasters at Cedar Point.  The rotunda at the tower’s base also contains the remains of three American and three British soldiers who died during the 1813 battle.

Best Trail

It is about two miles from the ferry terminal to the NPS visitor center, but if the weather is nice it is a pleasant walk on roads that are not busy.

Instagram-worthy Photo

The windows facing the memorial tower at the NPS visitor center are mirrored, which makes for a really interesting and distorted reflection.

Peak Season

Summer (May to October is the only time you can enter the memorial)

Hours

Open seasonally: https://www.nps.gov/pevi/planyourvisit/hours.htm

Fees

Free for museum, $10 per person for elevator to top of tower or free with America the Beautiful pass

Road Conditions

South Bass Island is only accessible by boat or airplane.  Ferry service allows you to bring your own vehicle to the island, which is small enough to walk everywhere or drive in a rental golf cart.

Camping

South Bass Island State Park has more than 100 primitive campsites on the island and East Harbor State Park on the mainland has more than 500 campsites with modern facilities.

Related Sites

River Raisin National Battlefield Park (Michigan)

Cuyahoga Valley National Park (Ohio)

Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park (Ohio)

Explore More – What is the significance of the “DON’T GIVE UP THE SHIP” flag?

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Boston National Historical Park

Overview

Boston National Historical Park is famous for the 2.5-mile Freedom Trail that leads through historic downtown Boston, Massachusetts.  Tourists should not try to drive into the city because parking is difficult and the public transportation system is so good.  We recommend that you hire a guide or bring along your own information because almost nothing along the route has outdoor interpretive signs.

Highlights

Faneuil Hall, Charlestown Navy Yard, Bunker Hill Memorial, burying grounds, Boston Common

Must-Do Activity

One of our favorite misnomers in American history is that the Battle of Bunker Hill actually took place on Breed’s Hill north of Boston.  This first major skirmish took place shortly after the Revolutionary War kicked off in Lexington, Massachusetts in 1775 and is well-known for the Patriot commander that told his men not to “fire ’til you see the whites of their eyes.”  The 221-foot obelisk built to memorialize this fight (which the Patriots lost) was started in 1825 but not completed until 1843.  The National Park Service does not charge to climb the 294 stairs to its peak for great views of the area. 

Best Trail

The famous 2.5-mile long Freedom Trail through downtown Boston, Massachusetts is a walking path marked by a line painted on the sidewalk.  Of the many historic places you will pass along the route, some of the free ones include the site of the 1770 Boston Massacre, Faneuil Hall known as the “Cradle of Liberty” (and now a National Park Service visitor center), the site of the first public school in America established in 1635, several burying grounds, and the Old Corner Bookstore that has been turned into a restaurant.  You can also pay to enter the Old State House and Paul Revere House, among other sites.

Instagram-worthy Photo

If you keep walking the Freedom Trail north you cross the Charlestown Bridge to the Charlestown Navy Yard where you can walk aboard the USS Constitution (“Old Ironsides”), the oldest commissioned warship afloat in the world, and learn about it from active-duty U.S. Navy servicemen and women.

Peak Season

Summer

Hours

https://www.nps.gov/bost/planyourvisit/hours.htm

Fees

None, except at specific buildings like the Old State House and Paul Revere House.

Road Conditions

Roads are paved, but traffic is bad and parking is expensive.  It is best to use public transportation to get into the city and then walk.

Camping

There are camping opportunities (reservations required) in Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, which are accessible by ferry from the city.

Related Sites

Minute Man National Historical Park (Massachusetts)

Boston African American National Historic Site (Massachusetts)

Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area (Massachusetts)

Explore More – The live oak wood used to build the USS Constitution came from what island, now managed by the National Park Service?

Fort Caroline National Memorial

Overview

After a failed settlement by persecuted French Protestants (Huguenots) in 1562, two years later a group of 200 soldiers, artisans, and a few women established a colony at the mouth of the St. Johns River (east of present-day Jacksonville, Florida).  Led by René de Goulaine de Laudonnière, they hurriedly assembled the triangular Fort Caroline, named for King Charles IX.  In 1565, Jean Ribault arrived with 600 more settlers and soldiers.  After learning the Catholic Spanish had established a base to the south at St. Augustine, Ribault set sail for a surprise attack, only to be shipwrecked by a hurricane.  The unprotected Fort Caroline was easily captured by the Spanish, who executed 140 of its 200 inhabitants.  The Spanish then killed the majority of the 250 French marooned at Matanzas Inlet, which gained its name from these “slaughters.”

Highlights

Museum, reconstructed fort, Hammock Trail, Ribault Monument

Must-Do Activity

The National Park Service (NPS) administers Fort Caroline National Memorial (established in 1950) as a unit of Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve (established in 1988).  Start your visit at the NPS museum, which provides information on the indigenous Timucuan, as well as the European colonization efforts.  After walking the Hammock Trail to see the reconstructed fort, drive to the nearby Ribault Monument, a replica of a stone column left by Jean Ribault at the mouth of the St. Johns River on May 2, 1562.

Best Trail

Within this 139-acre National Memorial, the Hammock Trail visits the reconstructed fort along the St. Johns River.  Starting from two parking lots south of Fort Caroline Road several trails explore Spanish Pond and the Theodore Roosevelt Area of Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve.

Instagram-worthy Photo

The actual site of the original fort has never been found (and is probably underwater), but you can tour a one-third scale reconstruction of the triangular structure based upon a drawing from 1564 by French artist Jacques le Moyne.  The French got a measure of revenge in 1568 when they attacked and burned Spanish-controlled Fort Caroline, but they could not take St. Augustine and never colonized Florida again.

Peak Season

Winter when there is less mosquito activity.

Hours

https://www.nps.gov/timu/learn/historyculture/foca_visiting.htm

Fees

None

Road Conditions

All roads paved

Camping

Little Talbot Island State Park and Kathryn Abbey Hanna Park (run by the city of Jacksonville) both have campgrounds.

Related Sites

Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve (Florida)

Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (Florida)

Fort Matanzas National Monument (Florida)

Explore More – When the Spanish took control of Fort Caroline in 1565, what did they rename it?

César E. Chávez National Monument

Overview

César Estrada Chávez was a Latino-American labor leader in the 1960s who led the fight for better working conditions and pay for all agriculture workers.  He helped form the National Farm Workers Association (NWFA) labor union, which became the United Farm Workers of America (UFW).  Similar to Martin Luther King, Jr., Chávez was an advocate of nonviolent protests, including fasts.  Chávez passed away in 1993 and César E. Chávez National Monument was established in 2012.

Highlights

Chávez gravesite, memorial garden, museum, Chávez office

Must-Do Activity

The National Park Service site is located at the historic Nuestra Señora Reina de la Paz property in Keene, California where César E. Chávez lived and the UFW was headquartered from 1970-84.  The site is now the home of the National Chávez Center, his gravesite, and a memorial garden.  The museum here includes exhibits, videos, and an audio program at Chávez’s old office.  A quick Spanish lesson before you go: “Huelga” translates to “Strike” and “Sí, se puede” means “Yes, we can.”

Best Trail

None

Instagram-worthy Photo

César Estrada Chávez is buried at the National Chávez Center in Keene, California surrounded by a well-landscaped memorial garden.

Peak Season

Summer

Hours

https://www.nps.gov/cech/planyourvisit/hours.htm

Fees

None

Road Conditions

The entry road is paved, but is located off the steeply inclined highway through Tehachapi, California in the southern Sierra Nevadas.

Camping

North of Keene, California, there are camping opportunities in Sequoia National Forest and around Isabella Lake.

Explore More – Which famous U.S. Senator called Chavez “one of the heroic figures of our time” in the 1960s?